A TFT (Thin Film Transistor) LCD, which is a thin film field effect transistor (LCD), is one of active matrix type liquid crystal displays (AM-LCDs). LCD flat panel display, special TFT-LCD, is the only display device that fully catches up and exceeds CRT in terms of brightness, contrast, power consumption, life, volume and weight. It has excellent performance and large-scale production characteristics. High degree of automation, low cost of raw materials, and broad development space will quickly become the mainstream products of the new century and a bright spot for global economic growth in the 21st century.
Different from the TN technology, the TFT display adopts a "back-transparent" illumination mode - the imaginary light source path is not from top to bottom, but from bottom to top like TN liquid crystal. In this way, a special light pipe is disposed on the back of the liquid crystal, and the light source is upwardly reflected by the lower polarizing plate when the light source is irradiated. Since the electrodes of the upper and lower interlayers are changed to the FET electrodes and the common electrodes, the performance of the liquid crystal molecules changes when the FET electrodes are turned on, and the display can be achieved by shading and light transmission, and the response time is greatly increased to about 80 ms. Because it has higher contrast and richer color than TN-LCD, the screen update frequency is also faster, so TFT is commonly known as "true color."
Compared with DSTN, the main feature of TFT-LCD is to configure one semiconductor switching device for each pixel. Since each pixel can be directly controlled by point pulse. Thus each node is relatively independent and can be continuously controlled. This design method not only improves the response speed of the display, but also precisely controls the display gray scale, which is why TFT color is more realistic than DSTN.
The main advantage
With the maturity of TFT technology in the early 1990s, color LCD flat panel displays have developed rapidly. In less than 10 years, TFT-LCD has rapidly grown into a mainstream display, which has its advantages and is inseparable. The main features are:
(1) Good use characteristics
Low-voltage applications, low drive voltage, solidification safety and reliability improvement; flat, thin and light, saving a lot of raw materials and space; low power consumption, its power consumption is about one-tenth of CRT display, reflection TFT-LCD is only about one percent of CRT, saving a lot of energy; TFT-LCD products are also available in specifications, sizes, and varieties. They are easy to use and flexible, easy to repair, update, and upgrade, and have a long service life. And many other features. The display range covers all display ranges from 1" to 40" and the projection large flat surface is a full-size display terminal; display quality from the simplest monochrome character graphics to high resolution, high color fidelity, High brightness, high contrast, high response speed of various specifications of video display; display mode is direct view, projection type, perspective type, also reflective.
(2) Good environmental protection characteristics
No radiation, no flicker, no harm to the user's health. In particular, the emergence of TFT-LCD e-books will bring mankind into the era of paperless office and paperless printing, triggering a revolution in human learning, communication and recording of civilizations.
(3) Wide application range
It can be used normally from -20 Â° C to +50 Â° C. The temperature-hardened TFT-LCD can reach a temperature of minus 80 Â° C. It can be used as a mobile terminal display, a desktop terminal display, or a large-screen projection TV. It is a full-size video display terminal with excellent performance.
(4) High degree of automation in manufacturing technology
Large-scale industrial production features are good. The TFT-LCD industry is mature in technology, and the yield of large-scale production has reached more than 90%.
(5) TFT-LCD is easy to integrate and update
It is the perfect combination of large-scale semiconductor integrated circuit technology and light source technology, and has great potential for further development. At present, there are amorphous, polycrystalline and single crystal silicon TFT-LCDs, and there will be TFTs of other materials in the future, both glass substrates and plastic substrates.
TFT Process (process of thin film transistor)
1, Array Process (array process)
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